As you enter into perimenopause you may find that you are more irritable, sad, angry, negative, or restless. How can you tell whether these are just temporary blips on your emotional radar screen or symptoms of more serious mental health problems?
While most women go through menopause without becoming depressed, a significant number will experience depression either as a recurrence of previous depression, or for the first time in their lives. Depression can make coping – with menopause and with life in general – very difficult or impossible. It impacts relationships, work performance and your quality of life.
Your Menopause Calendar
The first step is to pay attention to your mood. If you (or friends or family members) notice that you seem more down, ill-tempered, apathetic or pessimistic than usual, it may help to keep track of your moods. Start a calendar and track your mood, activity level, major life events, other menopause symptoms and menstrual cycle for a period of 3-4 months. This is a useful tool to track your passage through menopause, and will come in handy if you decide to talk your symptoms over with a professional. It is also a good reality check so that you can judge whether you actually are feeling sadder or more crabby than usual.
What is Depression?
Clinical depression, also called “major depression,” is a serious condition characterized by intense sadness or despair that lasts more than two weeks, and that interferes with your daily life. It is possible to minimize the symptoms for a long time before you realize it is stealing your enjoyment of life.
Causes of Midlife Depression
There are many reasons that women may suffer from depression after the age of forty. Some of them are biological, some are situational, and some are psychological. A few common factors in midlife depression are:
Hormone changes. Decreasing levels of estrogen and progesterone can upset the levels of neurotransmitters like serotonin, which in turn affects mood, sleep and appetite.
Response to loss. Loss of parents, children leaving home, divorce, friends lost to illness, loss of youth, or poor health – any one of these might trigger an extended grief response that could turn into major depression.
Medical conditions. Some medical conditions can make you more likely to suffer from depression. Women with heart disease, thyroid dysfunction, sleep disorders, seasonal affective disorder, or a previous head injury can be prone to major depression.
Drug and alcohol use. Alcohol and opiate pain medications are depressants. If you regularly use these substances, they can interfere with hormone activity, and can have the side effect of depression symptoms. Alcohol can also worsen hot flashes and night sweats, adding sleep difficulties to your list of things to cope with. Although it is tempting to ease your emotional pain with an extra glass of wine or other drugs, they can actually make your symptoms worse and make it harder to sort out whether you are depressed. If you are dependent on a daily dose of alcohol or other drugs, talk to your medical provider about getting off them safely so that you can see whether they are contributing to depression.
Symptoms of Depression
If you suspect you might be depressed, talk to your medical provider. Keep track of your symptoms for awhile and take that “Menopause Calendar” with you to your appointment. Any of the following could be signs that you are dealing with major depression:
- Feelings of sadness, hopelessness or despair that last longer than two weeks
- Feeling very tired, or tired all the time
- Feeling guilty or worthless
- An increase or decrease in appetite or weight
- Loss of enjoyment in activities that you have enjoyed in the past
- Loss of interest in sex
- Feeling restless or “slowed down”
- Trouble concentrating
- Trouble sleeping, or sleeping too much
- Thoughts of hurting yourself or dying
Anyone can have a day or two of feeling sad or down. And grief following a major loss is normal for up to a year. But if these symptoms become an ongoing norm for you, talk to a professional about it. You could talk to a medical provider, psychologist, counselor or other professional about whether your sadness or symptoms are normal.
Who’s at Risk?
Menopause is a vulnerable time for women. If you are one of those women who is particularly sensitive to hormone changes, or if you have suffered many losses or life changes in recent months you could be at risk for depression. Early perimenopause is a particularly vulnerable time because your body has not yet adjusted to the hormone shifts. The woman at highest risk for menopausal depression is one who:
- Has a history of a depression episode earlier in her life
- Has a family history of depression
- Suffers (or used to) from PMS
- Has had a post partum depression
- Has a history of depression when on oral contraceptives
- Has had a recent, major loss